Tehrân     Kiyef      Dâlâs     Moskow     Sufiye     Âstâne     Berlin     Došanbe     Âdelâyd     Halifaks       Tâ Nowruz

۱۳۹۰ اسفند ۸, دوشنبه

On the origin of the word ešq

The Modern Persian word ešq (عشق) meaning "love", classical Persian išq, is of utmost importance in the Persian literature and gnosis (erfān عرفان). This paper puts forward the idea that ešq, used in Persian and Arabic ('išq), may have an Indo-European origin. This proposal is mainly based on etymological studies.
Etymology 
The author thinks that ešq may be related to Avestan iš- "to wish, desire, search", aēša- "desire, search", išaiti "he wishes", išt "wished for, beloved", išti- "aspiration, aim", and suggests that it derives from *iška- or something like that. See below for more about the suffix -ka.
Avestan iš- is cognate with Sanskrit eṣ- "to wish, strive for, seek", icchā- "wish, desire", icchati "seeks for, wishes", iṣta- "beloved, sought", iṣti- "search, desire", Pali icchaka- "wishing, desirous". Note also that this word exists in Middle Persian in the form of išt "desire", as attested by Farahvaši.
The Avestan and Sanskrit words come from the Proto-Indo-European base *ais- "to wish, desire", *aisskā- "desire, search", which have several offshoots in other Indo-European languages: Old Church Slavic isko, išto "to seek, desire"; iska "wish"; Russian iskat' "to seek"; Lithuanian ieškau "to seek"; Latvian iēskât "to search for lice"; Armenian aic' "inspection, probe"; Latin aeruscare "to beg; go begging; get money traveling and practicing juggling"; Old High German eiscon "to desire"; Old English ascian "to ask"; English ask.
In contrast, the origin mentioned by traditional Persian lexicographers for ešq is the Arabic 'išq (عشق), from 'ašaq (عَشَق) "to stick, to cleave to". The latter is itself derived from 'ašaqa (عَشَقَه) the plant commonly called lablâb (لَبلاب) ("a kind of ivy"), because it twines upon trees, and cleaves to them (Zamaxšari, Tâj al-'arus).
It is interesting to note that ešq lacks a Hebrew counterpart; the Hebrew term for love is ahav, which is akin to Arabic habba (حَبَّ). Another Hebrew term used in the Old Testament is xašaq "to desire; to attach; delight, pleasure" (for example, Deu 10:15, 21:11; 1 Ki 9:19; Exo 27:17, 38:17; Gen 34:8). According to Prof. Scott B. Noegel, the Hebrew xašaq and Arabic 'ašaq are etymologically unrelated. The Hebrew x (heth) can equate either with an Arabic h (ḥā') or x (xā') and the Hebrew 'ayn can equate either with an Arabic 'ayn or qayn, but they do not mix. Also, typically the Hebrew š (shin) is reflected by an Arabic s (sin), and vise versa. As for the meanings, the similarity is a coincidence. Also, they are not ultimately of the same meaning. Hebrew x-š-q probably meant "to bind" or "press together", as does its Aramaic equivalent. Similarly, Prof. Werner Arnold underlines that Hebrew x in word initial positions is always an Arabic h (ḥā') and never 'ayn. 
Note also that ešq ('išq) does not appear in the Koran, which instead uses the aforementioned verb habba (حَبَّ) and its derivatives, for example the noun hubb (حُبّ). Moreover, in Modern Arabic the relevant terms dominantly used are: habba and its derived forms hubb, habib, mahbub, etc. 
Ferdowsi's clue 
It is well-known that Ferdowsi avoided using Arabic words in order to defend and promote Persian. Notwithstanding, he used ešq even if he had the possibility to refrain from it since poetry allows great latitude. The question is, why did not Ferdowsi use the usual word for "love" in Arabic, which is hubb, or another Persian word instead but preferred ešq? The author tends to believe that in spite of the fact that he did not have our today's philological knowledge as to the etymology of Persian and Indo-European words, he was probably aware that ešq was of Iranian/Persian origin. 
It would be interesting to know how Ferdowsi himself wrote ešq, maybe without the Arabic phoneme 'ayn (ع), like this: اشق or ! اِشک However, verifying this point is not straightforward, since the oldest extant manuscript of Šâh-nâme is written about two centuries after Ferdowsi. More specifically, it is dated 30 Muharram 614 Hijri, corresponding to Monday 15 May 1217 in the Gregorian calendar and Došanbe 25 Ordibehešt 596 in the Iranian solar calendar (Florence National Library). 
Conclusions  
In brief, we propose the following derivation path for ešq:  Proto-Inodo-European *ais- "to wish, desire, seek", *aisska- "desire, search" → Avestan iš- and → *iška- "desire, wish".
The suffix -ka- is common in Avestan and appears in many words, for example: mahrka- "death"; araska- "envy"; aδka- "garment, robe"; huška- "dry"; pasuka- "cattle, beast"; drafška-, drafša- "banner"; dahaka- "stinging(?)", Dahāka- a tyrant figure in Persian mythology (with aži-), and so on.
The Avestan term would have given rise to Middle Persian *išk. Two possibilities can be envisaged for the transfer of the Middle Persian word into Arabic. The first one is that it was transmitted into Arabic during the Sasanid era, when Persians dominated the Arabian Peninsula (see âzarnuš's book which deals with the ways Persian words could have penetrated into Arabic during Pre-Islamic times). The transformation of the Persian phoneme k into Arabic q is common, as in the following examples: kandak → xandaq, zandik → zandiq, kafiz → qafiz, kušk → jawsaq, k�sah → qaS'ah ( قصعَه); see the Persian version for references.
Interestingly, in the last example, qaS'ah ( قصعَه), not only the k phoneme has changed into a q (ق), two typical Semitic sounds have, in addition, appeared: Sâd (ص) and 'ayn (ع). Another example of the occurrence of 'ayn in loanwords is the name of the Iranian island and city âbâdan (آبادان), whose Arabic form is 'abbâdân (عبّادان). We note that the original form of this name was Apphana, as attested by Ptolemy, the famous second-century astronomer and geographer, who applies it to an island off the mouth of the Tigris. Similarly, the fourth-century geographer Marcian calls it Apphadana. According to the late scholar B. Farahvashi, this name comes from the Old Persian āppā-, from āp- "water" and pā- "to guard, to watch," literally meaning "coastguard station". The last example of the appearance of an 'ayn in Arabic loanwords is qurquma'n� (قرقومعنا) or qurquma'm� (قرقومعما ) "dregs of saffron oil". This is a loan from the Greek krokomagma, from krokos "saffron, crocus" and magma "ointment, dregs". Krokomagma was a drug used in Greek medicine, as attested in, for example, Galen's works.  
Arabic often creates other typical Semitic sounds in loanwords. Briefly, here are some examples of conversion into ghayn (غ) and tayn (ط), which do not exist in the source languages. Loans from Greek: f.i. th.a.ghayn.v.r.th (فیثاغورث): Pythagoras; q.a.tay.i.ghayn.v.r.i.a (قاطیغوریا): kategoria; a.r.ghayn.n.v.n (ارغنون): organon; m.ghayn.n.a.tayn.i.s. (مغناطیس): magnesia-lithos; a.s.tayn.r.l.a.b (اسطرلاب): astrolabos; a.r.s.tayn.v, a.r.s.tayn.a.tayn.a.l.s (ارسطو، ارسطاطالیس): Aristoteles; tayn.a.l.s (طالس): Thales. Loans from Persian: tayn.a.s (طاس): tašt (this word is the origin of French tasse and German Tasse); tayn.s.v.j (طسّوج): tas�y; tayn.s.q (طسق): tašk; tayn.b.q (طَبَق): tab�k. From French in Modern Arabic: ghayn.a.z (غاز): gaz ("a state of matter", like solid, liquid). 
Let us go back to the way ešq in its "love" sense was introduced into Arabic. Alternatively, the transfer may have happened at the beginning of the Islamic period through scholars and lexicographers of Persian origin. Since they lacked the necessary knowledge about the possible Iranian origin of ešq, they would have confused it with the Arabic 'ašaq (عَشَق) "to stick". Generally speaking, traditional lexicographers have often mentioned Arabic origins for Persian words mainly owing to their ignorance of Persian roots and sometimes owing to Arabicization attempts.
Acknowledgements: 
The author is grateful to Dr. Scott B. Noegel, Professor of Biblical and Ancient Near Eastern Studies, Chair, Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilization, University of Washington, for replying to his questions about the etymology of xašaq. The author is also indebted to Dr. Werner Arnold, Professor of Semitic studies, Department for Languages and Cultures of the Near East, University of Heidelberg, for helpful discussions and comments. The author also would like to thank Dr. Jalil Doostkhah, Professor of Avestan studies, for his remarks on a preliminary version of this note.

Source: http://aramis.obspm.fr/~heydari

هیچ نظری موجود نیست:

پر بیننده‌ترین جستار‌ها|Most popular|Самые популярные

دیدگاه‌های شما|Your comments|Ваши комментарии

کلید واژه‌ها | Key words | Ключевые слова

باشگاه زبان پارسی‌ BÂDPÂ БАДПА Клуб بادپا Club Персидский язык Darshâye zabâne pârsi Уроки персидского языка درس‌های زبان پارسی‌ Mollâ Nasreddin Мулла Насреддин ملا نصرالدین Persian language lessons Ebi ابی Dariush Dariush Eghbali Dâryuš Dâryuš Eqbâli Googoosh Gougoush Gugush Guguš Гугуш Дарьюш Дарьюш Эгбали Клуб любителей персидского языка Эби باشگاه دوستداران زبان پارسی‌ داریوش داریوش اقبالی فائقه آتشین گردشگری گوگوش Bozorgâne Irân zamin Omar Xayyâm Tourism Омар Хайям Туризм آموزش زبان پارسی‌ آیا می دانستید بزرگان ایران‌زمین عمر خیّام Persia Sattar Shahram Nazeri Šahrâm Nâzari Изучение персидского языка Шахрам Назери بزرگان ایران دیدنی ها دیدنی‌های ایران شاعران شهرام ناظری فردوسی نوروز هایده هنرمندان Artists Hayede Kourosh Yaghmaei Nowruz Nowruz stamps Persepolis Sadegh Nojouki Tambrhâye Nowruzi Артисты Курош Ягмаи Марки о Ноурузе Персеполис Садэг Новджуки Саттар Хаедэ ایرانیان تخت جمشید تمبرهای نوروزی جشن‌های ایرانی‌ خط پارسی دکتر مصدق ریشه یابی ستار صادق نوجوکی محمد رضا پهلوی محمد مصدق مشکلات فرهنگی ملکه ثریا ورزش بانوان کوروش یغمایی America so beautiful Atusa BBC Bahram Radan BÂSTÂN Bâšgâh Bâšgâhe dustdârâne farhange Irân zamin Ebrahim Hamedi Ehsan Khajeh Amiri Ehsân Xhâje Amiri English subtitles Ferdowsi Golshifte Farahani Hasan Shamaizadeh Iman Maleki Imân Maleki Iraj Jannati Ataei Jamshid Kuroš Mansour Tehrani Mansur Marjane Satrapi Marjân Sâtrâpi Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Mohsen Makhmalbaf Mortezâ Naser Cheshm Azar Omid Omid Soltâni Parandegâni ke dar xâb dideam Persian Songs Sa'di Sex and Philosophy Shadmehr Aghili Shah of Persia Shahram Shabpare Siavash Ghomayshi Sina Hejazi Sinâ Hejâzi Soraya Taxte Jamšid Whirlpool Women's sport Zartošt Âmrikâye zibâ Âpârât Šahrâm Šabpare Америка так красиво Ахурамазда Джамшид Женщины в спорте Иман Малеки Ирадж Джаннати Атаи Любовь Манес Мани Манихейство Мансур Маржан Сатрапи Мортеза Мохсен Махмальбаф Омид Омид Солтани Онлайн изучение персидского языка Персидские песни Персидский марш Саади Секс и философия Сина Хэджази Сияваш Гомейши Сорая Философия Ирана Философия в Иране Философия в Персии Хасан Шамаизадэ Шадмэхр Агили Шахрам Шабпарэ Эхсан Хаджэ Амири курсы персидского языка آتوسا آخرالزمان آرش کمانگیر آمریکای زیبا آپارات ابراهیم حامدی ابوالقاسم فردوسی اتحادیه احسان خواجه امیری احمد شاملو اختلافات ارضی اسطوره‌های ایران زمین امید امید سلطانی اندیشه اهورا مزدا ايرج جنتی عطایی ایران از نگاه آلمانی‌ها ایران و عرب‌ها ایرانرود ایمان ملکی باستان باشگاه دوستداران فرهنگ ایران زمین بهار بهرام رادان بی بی سی تاجیکان تاریخچه ی پیدایش تعزیه تحصیل تحصیل در خارج تحصیل در روسیه ترانه‌های پارسی‌ تعزیه تعزیه و موسیقی توسعه به سبک ایرانی ثریا ثریا اسفنداری جشن تیرگان جمشید جنسیت و فلسفه حسن شماعی زاده حسن هدایت حقوق بشر خليج پارس داریوش مهرجویی دکتر محمد مصدق زبان زبان شناسی‌ زبان مادری زرتشت سعد ی سپندارمذگان سکس و فلسفه سیاوش قمیشی سینا حجازی شادمهر عقیلی شاه ایران شاهنامه شاهنامه ی فردوسی شبیه خوانی شهاب حسینی شهرام شب پره صادق هدایت طنز و لطیفه عزاداری غذا فرهنگ فلات ایران فیلم سینمایی فیلم پرسپولیس قاره ی کهن لابی ماه محرم محسن مخملباف مرتضی مرجان ساتراپی مشکلات تحصیل منشور کوروش منصور منصور تهرانی موسیقی ناصر چشم آذر نقاشان هخامنشیان پارسی‌ زبانان پرسپولیس پرندگانی که در خواب دیده ام پژوهش چلوکباب کودتا کودتای ۲۸ امرداد کوروش کوروش بزرگ کوروش کبیر گرداب گستره ی زبان پارسی‌ گلشیفته فراهانی یوتا هیمل‌رایش یکپارچگی ملی